PNF and Movement 2021; 19(2): 173-182
https://doi.org/10.21598/JKPNFA.2021.19.2.173
Comparing the Effects of Underwater and Ground-Based Diagonal Pattern Exercises on the Balance Confidence and Respiratory Functions of Chronic Stroke Patients
Jae-Cheol Park, P.T., Ph.D.⋅Dong-Kyu Lee, P.T., Ph.D.
Department of Physical Therapy, Chunnam Techno University
Correspondence to: Dong-Kyu Lee (ehck@cntu.ac.kr)
Received: May 13, 2021; Revised: May 30, 2021; Accepted: June 2, 2021; Published online: August 31, 2021.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of underwater and ground-based diagonal pattern exercises on the balance confidence and respiratory functions of chronic stroke patients.
Methods: Thirty chronic stroke patients were assigned randomly to an experimental (n = 15) or control (n = 15) group. The experimental group performed an underwater diagonal pattern exercise. The control group performed a ground-based diagonal pattern exercise. Training was conducted once a day for 30 minutes, five days per week for six weeks. Balance confidence was measured using the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale―Korea version. Respiratory function was measured using a spirometer.
Results: In a comparison within groups, the experimental and control groups showed significant differences in balance confidence after the experiment (p < 0.05). In a comparison between the two groups, the experimental group showed a more significant difference in balance confidence than the control group (p < 0.05). In a comparison within groups, the experimental group showed a significant difference in respiratory functions after the experiment (p < 0.05). In a comparison between the two groups, the experimental group showed a more significant difference in respiratory functions than the control group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Based on these results, underwater diagonal pattern exercises effectively improved the balance confidence and respiratory functions of chronic stroke patients.
Keywords: Underwater, Diagonal, Balance-confidence, Respiratory function, Stroke


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