PNF and Movement 2021; 19(2): 261-267
Effects of the Gait Variable While Using Smartphones During Ramp Gait in Young Adults
Chae-Hyo Yoon, P.T.⋅Bum-Su Kim, P.T.1⋅Do-Young Kang, P.T.2⋅Yeonseo Kim, P.T.3⋅ Myoung-Hee Lee, P.T., Ph.D.2†
Department of Physical Therapy, Pohang Semyung Christianity Hospital
1Department of Physical Therapy, Good Yonsei Rehabilitation Clinic
2Department of Physical Therapy, Uiduk University
3Department of Physical Therapy, Master Plus Hospital
Correspondence to: Myoung-Hee Lee (
Received: August 3, 2021; Revised: August 5, 2021; Accepted: August 5, 2021; Published online: August 31, 2021.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

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Purpose: This study aimed to investigate changes in gait variables depending on whether a task was performed using a smartphone while walking on a ramp.
Methods: The participants of this study were 41 college students attending U University located in Gyeongju City, Gyeongsangbuk-do. In this study, gait variables were measured during ramp gait while using a smartphone to perform a task and during ramp gait without performing such tasks. In other words, four walking conditions were used: 1) walking up a ramp, 2) walking up a ramp while using a smartphone to perform a task, 3) walking down a ramp, and 4) walking down a ramp while using a smart phone to perform a task. Gait variables were measured using a gait analysis tool (Legsys; BioSensics, USA), and stride time, stride length, stride velocity, cadence, and double support were analyzed. The order of measurements was randomized to control for order effects due to repeated measurements.
Results: The comparative analysis of gait variables according to the presence or absence of smartphone use during ramp gait showed that there were significant differences in stride time, stride length, and stride velocity during both ramp ascent and ramp descent (p < 0.05). In both ramp ascent and ramp descent, stride time increased when walking using a smartphone, compared to when walking without using a smartphone (p < 0.05). However, in both ramp ascent and ramp descent, stride length and stride velocity were decreased when walking using a smartphone compared to when walking without using a smartphone (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The study results showed that the use of a smartphone during walking can affect safety. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the awareness of risks associated with walking while using a smartphone, and further research needs to be conducted in various environments and with different ramps.
Keywords: Ramp, Gait variable, Smartphone

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