PNF and Movement 2021; 19(2): 279-285
https://doi.org/10.21598/JKPNFA.2021.19.2.279
Validity and Reliability of New Digital Navicular Drop Test Equipment in Young People
Jin-Seong Park, P.T., Ph.D.⋅Du-Jin Park, P.T., Ph.D.1†
Daonwellness Corporation
1Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan
Correspondence to: Du-Jin Park (djpark35@cup.ac.kr)
Received: November 30, 2020; Revised: December 21, 2020; Accepted: December 23, 2020; Published online: August 31, 2021.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to develop new digital navicular drop test (ND-NDT) equipment and to determine its validity and reliability.
Methods: A total of 24 healthy male and female adults, who fully understood the purpose of the study and gave consent to participate in the study, were selected as participants. The NDT and ND-NDT were conducted in the dominant foot of the participants in a random order. For the NDT, the position of the navicular bone was marked with a pen first; then, the height of the navicular bone from the ground was measured in both sitting and standing positions. For the ND-NDT, after the sticker-type reflection markers were attached to the position of the navicular bone, the height of the navicular bone from the ground was measured in both sitting and standing positions. To assess the validity of the diagnostic tests, the same examiner measured the height of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) three times in both the sitting and standing positions. To assess the inter-rater reliability of the ND-NDT, three examiners, in a random order, attached the sticker-type reflection markers to the position of the navicular bone and then measured the height of the MLA in both positions.
Results: In the sitting position, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the two diagnostic tests was very high (r = 0.97) and statistically significant. In the standing position, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the two tests was 0.95, which was also statistically significant. The ICC2,1 values in the sitting and standing positions were 0.93 and 0.95, respectively, indicating significantly high inter-rater reliability.
Conclusion: The ND-NDT equipment showed very high diagnostic validity, as well as excellent inter-rater reliability, indicating the clinical usefulness of the equipment as a diagnostic system for confirming pes planus.
Keywords: Medial longitudinal arch, Navicular drop test, New digital navicular drop test equipment, Validity, Reliability


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