PNF and Movement 2021; 19(3): 321-329
https://doi.org/10.21598/JKPNFA.2021.19.3.321
Changes in Thickness of Transverse Abdominis, Internal Oblique, and External Oblique through the Abdominal Drawing-in Maneuver Exercise Incorporating a Stabilizer or the Bridge Exercise
Sam-Won Yoon, P.T., M.S.⋅Bong-Oh Goo, P.T., Ph.D.1†
Department of Physical Therapy, Graduated School of Catholic University of Pusan
1Department of Physical Therapy, Catholic University of Pusan
Correspondence to: Bong-Oh Goo (kbo0427@cup.ac.kr)
Received: August 27, 2021; Revised: September 18, 2021; Accepted: October 5, 2021; Published online: December 31, 2021.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Purpose: The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is an exercise that selectively strengthens deep abdominal muscles. It is reported to be effective in strengthening those muscles when using a pressure biofeedback unit. However, multiple factors of bridge exercise seem to bring exercise result of ADIM without stabilizer as they influence execution of ADIM. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare changes in the thickness of deep abdominal muscles through the ADIM exercise incorporating either a stabilizer or the bridge exercise.
Methods: Thirty healthy adults who had voluntarily given their consent were selected as the subjects. A diagnostic sonograph was used to measure the thickness of the subjects’ transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles. First, the thickness of the subjects’ deep abdominal muscle was measured while maintaining the ADIM using the stabilizer. After three minutes of rest, the thickness was measured again while the subjects maintained the ADIM with the bridge exercise.
Results: In both exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis showed a statistically significant increase, with a more significant increase while executing the ADIM using the bridge exercise. In both exercises, the thickness of the internal oblique showed a statistically significant increase, with a more significant increase while executing the ADIM using the bridge exercise. The thickness of the external oblique showed a statistically significant increase only in the ADIM using the bridge exercise.
Conclusion: Though strengthening is not as selective as the ADIM using a stabilizer, the ADIM using the bridge exercise has a more increased thickness of the transverse abdominis and the internal oblique than that of the internal oblique. Based on the outcome of this study, the ADIM using the bridge exercise without a stabilizer can selectively strengthen deep abdominal muscles even more.
Keywords: Abdominal drawing-in maneuver, Stabilizer, Bridge


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