PNF and Movement 2021; 19(3): 423-433
https://doi.org/10.21598/JKPNFA.2021.19.3.423
Effects of the PNF Leg Pattern according to Chain Exercise Postures and Resistance Intensity on the Contralateral Leg’s Muscle Activity
Him Seok, P.T., M.S.⋅Sung-Young Yoon, P.T., M.S.1⋅Jae-Seok Heo, P.T., M.S.⋅Sang-Yeol Lee, P.T., Ph.D.2†
Department of Physical Therapy, Graduated school of Kyungsung University
1Department of Physical Therapy, Dongju College
2Department of Physical Therapy, Kyungsung University
Correspondence to: Sang-Yeol Lee (sjslh486@ks.ac.kr)
Received: December 12, 2021; Revised: December 15, 2021; Accepted: December 16, 2021; Published online: December 31, 2021.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Purpose: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a method for promoting functional movements by facilitating neuromuscular responses through the stimulation of proprioceptors in the body using spiral and diagonal patterns. Irradiation, a basic principle of PNF, is a phenomenon in which the muscle activity of a body part caused by resistance is increased or spread into muscles in other parts via their connected muscles. Resistance training can be divided by body alignment into closed and open chain exercises.
Methods: In this study, 19 healthy men in their 20s and 30s were selected as subjects. They performed PNF hip flexion, abduction, and internal rotation motions on their dominant side in an open chain exercise posture in which the nondominant sole was away from the wall, and in a closed chain exercise posture in which the sole was fixed to the wall. The nondominant leg’s muscle activity was measured while resistance was maintained with applied pressure at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the maximum muscle strength in the last range of motions. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for a comparative analysis of the contralateral leg’s muscle activity according to the chain exercise postures and the intensity of resistance intensity during PNF hip flexion, abduction, and internal rotation. In addition, an independent sample T-test was conducted for a comparative analysis of each chain exercise posture according to the intensity of resistance. A one-way ANOVA and a Scheffe post-hoc test were also performed to analyze the contralateral leg’s muscle activity according to the intensity of resistance in the closed and open chain exercise postures.
Results: Results of the two-way ANOVA found that the gluteus medius and the biceps femoris had statistically significant differences in both the chain exercise postures and resistance intensity (p<0.05), and that the vastus medialis and the gastrocnemius did not exhibit statistically significant differences in the chain exercise postures (p>0.05) but showed statistically significant differences in resistance intensity (p<0.05). As a result of the independent sample T-test, the application of the PNF hip flexion-abduction-internal rotation pattern led to a statistically significant difference in the contralateral gluteus medius during the closed chain exercise posture (p<0.05). According to the results of the one-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post-analysis, statistically significant differences were observed in the gluteus medius at 50%, biceps femoris at 75%, vastus medialis at 100%, and gastrocnemius at 100% during the closed chain exercise posture based on a resistance intensity of 0% (p<0.05). In the open chain exercise posture, statistically significant differences were found in the gluteus medius at 50%, biceps femoris at 50%, and vastus medialis at 75% based on the resistance intensity of 0% (p<0.05). In the same posture, there was no significant difference in the gastrocnemius’s resistance intensity (p>0.05).
Conclusion: When the PNF leg pattern is applied, each muscle requires effective chain exercise postures and resistance intensity to generate the contralateral leg muscle’s irradiation.
Keywords: PNF, Kinematic chain position, Resistance strength, Irradiation


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