PNF and Movement 2022; 20(1): 115-125
The Effects of Sit-to-stand Training with Various Foot Positions Combined with Visual Feedback on Muscle Onset Time and Balance in Stroke Patients
Su-jin Kim, PT, MS.1⋅Ho-hee Son, PT, PhD.2†
1Department of Physical Therapy, Eson Hospitial Rehabilitation
2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan
Correspondence to: Ho-Hee Son (
Received: March 23, 2022; Revised: April 3, 2022; Accepted: April 6, 2022; Published online: April 30, 2022.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sit-to-stand training with various foot positions combined with visual feedback on muscle onset time and balance in stroke patients.
Methods: Thirty stroke patients were randomly assigned into three standing groups: one with a symmetrical foot position (SSF; n = 10), one with an asymmetrical foot position with the affected foot at the rear (SAF; n = 10), and one with visual feedback and an asymmetrical foot position (SVAF; n = 10). Sit-to-stand training with different foot positions was performed for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. The effects on muscle onset time and balance were assessed.
Results: In a comparison of the onset time of muscle contraction, the onset time of the affected side tibialis anterior and less-affected side gastrocnemius muscle and tibialis anterior was significantly shortened in the SAVF group. And onset time of the less-affected side tibialis anterior was shortened in the SAF group. There was a significant difference in the result of functional reach testing in the SVAF group.
Conclusion: VRG was effective in improving muscle activity and balance in elderly women aged 65 and older. In this study, sit-to-stand training with visual feedback and asymmetrical foot position showed significant functional improvement.
Keywords: Sit to stand, Stroke, Onset time, Balance, Visual feedback

This Article