PNF and Movement 2023; 21(2): 223-229
Types of Sit-to-Stand Tests and Research on the Correlation with Body Muscle Mass
Tae Sung Park, PT, PhD1⋅So Jung Lee2⋅Myung-Jun Shin, M.D, PhD3⋅Jong Ho Kang, PT, PhD2†
1Department of Convergence Medical Institute of Technology and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital
2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan
3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Pusan National University Hospital and Pusan National University School of Medicine
Correspondence to: Jong Ho Kang (
Received: June 19, 2023; Revised: July 24, 2023; Accepted: July 31, 2023; Published online: August 31, 2023.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: Assessing physical strength and muscle mass is crucial, but many methods rely on specialized equipment, which can be challenging. In situations where a quick and straightforward test is needed, the sit-to-stand test (STST) proves useful. Although several studies have investigated STST and muscle mass separately, the actual correlation between these two factors has not been extensively researched. Hence, the objective was to comprehensively investigate the correlations between the different tests.
Methods: The study participants consisted of 20 healthy young men in their 20s. In this study, measurements were taken for muscle mass, the five-times sit-to-stand test, the 30-second sit-to-stand test, and the 1-minute sit-to-stand test. The results of each test were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation analysis.
Results: Although no significant correlation was found between muscle mass and STST, interestingly, significant correlations were observed among the different types of STST.
Conclusion: The STST is a rapid and straightforward test used to assess lower limb strength and balance ability in individuals. However, there is a dearth of research on STST conducted in domestic settings. Based on the findings of this study, further research is necessary to establish age- and gender-specific reference values for STST. This will allow its broader application, encompassing not only older adults and patients but also healthy individuals.
Keywords: Body composition, Lower extremity, Sit to stand test, Muscle strength

This Article