PNF and Movement 2023; 21(3): 273-280
The Effectiveness of Air Insoles in Improving Temporomandibular Disorders
Mi-Ae Sung, H.S., Ph.D.1⋅Su-Youn Ko, H.S., M.Sc.2⋅Dong-Kyu Kim, P.T., Ph.D.3†
1Department of Dental Hygiene, Daegu Health College
2Department of Health, Yeung-nam University Graduate School
3Department of Physical Therapy, National Traffic Injury Rehabilitation Hospital
Correspondence to: Dong-Kyu Kim (
Received: August 17, 2023; Revised: September 6, 2023; Accepted: September 20, 2023; Published online: December 31, 2023.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: In patients with temporomandibular joint disorders, air insoles are used to investigate functionality and pain changes in the temporomandibular joint when walking in daily life.
Intervention: Sixty-five patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were recruited: 34 as a control group who walked more than 7,000 steps a day in daily life, and 31 as an experimental group who were instructed to take at least 7,000 steps every day while wearing their air insoles.
Measurements: To determine the effects of air insoles on temporomandibular joint pain, steady-state pain, maximum mouth opening, average pain, and the most severe pain were measured before and after the experiment. In addition, to evaluate functionality, the ability to open the mouth in a comfortable state, pain when opening the mouth, and the point of sound and maximum degree to which the mouth could be opened were evaluated before and after the experiment.
Results: Pain, mouth openness, and sound points showed significant differences from the control group after the experiment, and the maximum mouth opening range showed no significant difference.
Conclusion: When air insoles were used by patients with temporomandibular joint disorder, the functionality of the temporomandibular joint was improved and pain was decreased.
Keywords: Temporomandibular Joint, Air Insole, Walking, TMJ Disorder

This Article