PNF and Movement 2023; 21(3): 387-401
Translation and Content Validation of the Korean Version of the Falls Efficacy Scale for Stroke and Brain Injury Patients
Su-jin Kim, P.T., Ph.D.1⋅Jeong-Ah Kim, P.T., Ph.D.2⋅Su-jin Hwang, P.T., Ph.D.3†
1Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science, Jeonju University
2iMOVE Center, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, South Korea
3Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Health Science, Baekseok University
Correspondence to: Sujin Hwang (
Received: November 26, 2023; Revised: December 4, 2023; Accepted: December 5, 2023; Published online: December 31, 2023.
© Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (K-FES), which is used to measure the fear of falling, that is conceptually equivalent to the original and culturally adaptable to the Korean population.
Methods: A five-step translation and adaptation process was employed to create the K-FES, adhering to the established guidelines for cross-cultural rehabilitation outcome measures. The content validity was then evaluated by 22 rehabilitation professionals (15 males and 7 females) with an average clinical experience of 201 months at neurological rehabilitation centers. The content validity ratio and index were used as a basis for judgment.
Results: The translation process identified inconsistencies with the terms “objects” and “telephone” in the original Falls Efficacy Scale, which were subsequently resolved in the final K-FES version. The content validity ratios for the original, second, and third versions of the K-FES ranged from -0.27–0.91, -0.27–0.91, and -0.27–0.91, respectively. Correspondingly, the content validity index values for the original, second, and third versions of the K-FES ranged from 0.77–1.00, 0.68–1.00, and 0.63–1.00, respectively.
Conclusions: The K-FES was rigorously developed through translation, adaptation, and validation processes, making it a reliable tool for Korean stroke rehabilitation professionals. It is expected to be instrumental in clinical and research settings to assess postural stability and fall risk in patients with strokes and brain injuries.
Keywords: Brain injury, Content validity, Postural balance, Stroke, Translation

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